A REVIEW ON SOME MEDICINAL PLANT HAVING ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIALHTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON SOME MEDICINAL PLANT HAVING ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL
Archana Dongray * 1, Sarika Nigam 1, Dilip Kumar Chanchal 2, Saurabh Chaudhary 2 and Shahbaz Khan 3
College of Pharmacy 1, SRGI, Ambabai, Jhansi - 284002, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Department of Pharmacognosy 2, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi - 284128, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Mexcell Pharmaceutical Pvt. Ltd. 3, Gumnawara Medical College, Jhansi - 284128, Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder of endocrine system. Medicinal plant have used for the treatment of diabetes through the world. Several medicinal plants are known to treat diabetes and they have no side effect. The medicinal plant performed a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Many studies have confirmed the benefits of medicinal plant with hypoglycemic effect in the management of diabetes mellitus. This present review evaluates the medicinal plant used for anti-diabetic activity. The present review profile give information about the plants scientific name, common name, family, and the part of the plant used to treat diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Medicinal plant, Diabetic potential
INTRODUCTION: Medicinal plant continues to be an important therapeutic aid for alleviating aliments of humankind. Over the last 2500 years, there have been a very strong traditional system of medicine such as Chinese, Ayurvedic, and the Unani, born and practiced more in the eastern continent. These traditions are still flourishing, since; approximately 80% of the people in the developing countries rely on these systems of medicine for their primary health care needs medicinal plants are good sources for new safe, biodegradable and renewable drugs 1.
History of Use of Traditional Herbal Medicines: By definition, ‘traditional’ use of herbal medicines implies substantial historical use, and this is certainly true for many products that are available as ‘traditional herb medicines’. In many developing countries, a large proportion of the population relies on traditional practitioners and their armamentarium of medicinal plants in order to meet healthcare needs. In Germany, for example, where herbal products are sold as ‘phyto-medicines’, they are subject to the same criteria for efficacy, safety and quality as are other drug products 2.
The Role of Herbal Medicines in Traditional Healing: The pharmacological treatment of disease began long ago with the use of herbs 3. Methods of folk healing throughout the world commonly used herbs as part of their tradition. Some of these traditions are briefly described below, providing some examples of the array of important healing practices around the world that used herbs for this purpose.
Indian Traditional Medicine: Ayurveda is a medical system primarily practised in India that has been known for nearly 5000 years. It includes diet and herbal remedies, while emphasizing the body, mind and spirit in disease prevention and treatment 4.
Japanese Traditional Medicine: Many herbal remedies found their way from China into the Japanese systems of traditional healing. Herbs native to Japan were classified in the first pharmacopoeia of Japanese traditional medicine in the ninth century 5.
Traditional Chinese Medicine: Traditional Chinese medicine has been used by Chinese people from ancient times. Although animal and mineral materials have been used, the primary source of remedies is botanical. Of the more than 12 000 items used by traditional healers, about 500 are in common use. Traditional Chinese medicine is still in common use in China. More than half the population regularly uses traditional remedies, with the highest prevalence of use in rural areas. About 5000 traditional remedies are available in China; they account for approximately one fifth of the entire Chinese pharmaceutical market 6.
History of Herbs in Medicine and Pharmacy: Herbs were our first source of medicine, and their use predates written history by several thousand years. No one knows when humans first used plants for medicine, but pollens of at least six medicinal plants were found in a Neanderthal burial site estimated to be at least 60,000 7. The early history of medicine parallels the history of herbal medicine: the first books written about medicine were also the first books written about herbs, including Chinese texts from 5000 yr ago, such as the famous herbal of the Yellow Emperor and the Egyptian text Ebers papyrus, written 3500 yr ago. In Western medicine, the father of modern medicine, Theophrastus, is also the father of modern botany. Theophrastus published the first book describing plants in detail in 320 BC, which was also the first Western book about their medicinal uses. Herbal medicine has been at the heart of medicine in every culture in the world and at every time throughout history.
Today, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicines, mostly plant based, as their main source of health care 8. This figure includes not only the large populations of China and India and all of the less developed countries of the world but also many modern nations. Even in the United States, approx 25% of our prescription medicines are still extracted from plants or are synthetic copies of plant chemicals 8, and at least 57% of our top prescription medicines are derived in some way from plants, including semisynthetics, in which plant chemicals are used as building blocks for synthetic drugs 9.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, action or both. It is made up of two types: Type I and type II. Type I diabetes often referred to as juvenile diabetes, is insulin dependent and known to affect only 5% of the diabetic population. The type II, which is non-insulin dependent, usually develops in adults over the age of 40. It has already been established that chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long term damage, dysfunction and eventually the failure of organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels 10. It is estimated that 25% of the world population is affect by this disease. Currently available therapy for diabetes includes insulin and various oral hypoglycemic agents such as sulfonylureas, metformin, glucosidase inhibitors, troglitazone, etc. But these are reported to produce serious adverse side effects such as liver problems, lactic acidosis and diarrhea 11. It is currently affecting around 143 million people 12 and the number of those affected is increasing day by day, by 2030 it is predicted to reach 366 million populations worldwide 13.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) about 65-80% of the world’s population in developing countries depends essentially on plants and plant derived compounds for their primary healthcare needs. According to the National Medicinal Board, Govt. of India, 17,000 to 18,000 number of species of flowering plants are estimated of which 6,000 to 7,000, species are found to have medicinal usage in folk and documented System of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and Homopathy 14.
Type of Diabetes:
- Type 1 (Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus).
- Type 2 (Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus).
- Type 3 (Gestational diabetes mellitus).
Type 1 (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus): It is also called as Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). It is due to failure of body for insulin production (International diabetes federation) 15.
It is often childhood disease so it is also called as Juvenile onset diabetes mellitus.
Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (or Juvenile Onset Diabetes)
- Most common type of diabetes in children
- Autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks and destroys the part of the pancreas that makes insulin.
- Symptoms include increased thirst, increased urination, increased hunger, weight loss, fatigue,
- Abdominal pain.
- Requires daily insulin injections to control blood sugar.
- Can’t be prevented (autoimmune disorder.)
TABLE 1: ANALYSIS OF REMEDIES OBTAINED FROM DIFFERENT PLANT PARTS FOR DIABETES MELLITUS
|S. no.||Botanical name||Common name||Family||Active chemical constituents||Part used|
|1||Acacia Arabica||Indian gum||Fabeceae||Polyphenol,Tannin 7-12||Seed, Bark|
|2||Aegle mamelos||Golden apple||Rutaceae||Aegeline 2, Coumarin, Flavonoid,
|Leaf, Seed, Fruit|
|3||Allium cepa||Onion||Liliaceae||Allyl propyl disulphide, S- methyl
cysteine sulphoxide 12,16, 17
|4||Aloe barbadensis||Barbados Aloe||Asphodelaceae||Lophenol, 24-methyl-lophenol, 24-
Ethyllophenol1 8, 19
|5||Allium sativum L.||Garlic||Alliaceae||Diallyl disulphide oxide, Ajoene,
Allyl propyl disulfide, S-allyl cysteine,
S-allyl mercaptocysteine 20-22
|6||Azadirachta Indica||Neem||Meliaceae||Nimbidine 11, 12, 23||Leaf, seed|
|Jackfruit||Moraceae||Sapogenin 11, 12, 24, 25||Sapogenin|
|8||Aloe vera||Barbados aloe||Liliaceae||Pseudoprototinosaponin,
Prototinosaponin 18, 25, 26
|9||Annona Sqamosa||Annonaceae 26-29||fruit peel|
|Worm wood||Asteraceae||Polysaccharide 11, 12, 30, 31||Fruit|
|Gumbo||Malvaceae||Carbohydrate, Gum, Mucilage,
Protein, Phytosterol, Flavonoid,
Tannin, Phenolics, Volatile oil 11
|12||Abrus precatorius L.||Jequirity||Fabaceae 32, 33||Seed|
|13||Abutilon crispum (L.)||Nela benda||Malvaceae 34||Leaf|
|14||Butea monosperma||Bastard teak||Fabaceae||Butein, Palasonin, Stigmasterol-3 β-
|15||Beta vulgaris||Beetroot||Chenopodiaceae||Sugar beet pectin, Polydextrose 12, 35||Whole Plant|
|Sikerpud||Oxalidaceae 12, 26, 36||Whole Plant|
|17||Brassica juncea||Mustard||Brassicaceae||Isorhamnetin diglucoside 37||Seed, Leaf|
|18||Brassica nigra L||Black mustard||Cruciferae 38||Whole plant|
|19||Bauhinia acuminata||White kachnar||Caesalpiniaceae 39||Leaf|
|20||Boerhaavia diffusa L.||Tar vine||Nyctaginaceae 38||Leaf|
|21||Bridelia ferruginea||Balli chettu||Phyllanthaceae 40||Leaf, fruit, stem bark, roots|
|22||Carica papaya||Papaya||Caricaceae||Saponin, Tannin, Alkaloid,
|23||Coccinia indica||Ivy-gourd||Cucurbitaceae||Β-amyrin, Lupeol, Cucurbitacin B 11, 12, 41||Fruit|
|24||Curcuma longa||Turmeric||Zingiberaceae||Curcuminoid 12||Root|
|25||Cuminum cyminum||Cumin seed||Apiaceae||Aldehyde 12, 42||Seed|
|Coriander||Apiaceae||Alanine 12, 42||Leaf|
|Cinnamon||Lauraceae||Cinnamaldehyde 11, 12||Leaf, Bark|
|Red periwinkle||Apocynaceae||Vinculin, Alkaloid 12||Whole Plant|
|30||Diospyros lotus||Date plum||Ebenaceae||Phenolics 11||Fruit|
|31||Datura stramonium||Thorn apple||Solanaceae 33||Seed|
|32||Emblica officinalis||Amla||Euphorbiaceae||Tannoid 11, 12||Fruit|
|Blue gum||Myrtaceae||Calytoside 11, 12, 44||Leaf|
|34||Erythrina variegate||Sunshine tree||Fabaceae||Root|
|35||Ficus bengalensis||Banyan tree||Moraceae||Leucopelargonidin 11, 12, 46||Bark|
|36||Ficus carica||Anjir||Moraceae||Invert sugar 11, 12, 46||Leaf, Fruit|
|Asclepiadaceae||Gymnemic acid, Gymnema,
Saponin 47, 12
|38||Grifola frondosa||Maitake||Meripilaceae||Disaccharide 11||Fruit|
|39||Glycine max||Soya beans||Fabaceae||3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol 9-12||Seed|
|Talmakhana||Acanthaceae 12||Whole Plant|
|41||Helicteres isora||East Indian
|Sterculiaceae||Steroid, Terpenoid, Alkaloid,
Carbohydrate, Phenolics 11
|42||Ibervillea sonorae||Huereque||Cucurbitaceae||Monoglyceride (MG), Fatty acid 41, 11, 12||Root|
|43||Ipomoea batatas||Sweet potato||Convolvulaceae 48||Leaf|
|44||Justicia glacua||Water-willow||Acanthaceae 49||Plant|
|45||Jatropha curcas||Barbados nut||Euphorbiaceae||Tannin 11, 12, 49||Whole Plant|
|Sea coconut||Palmae||Carbohydrate 11||Fruit|
|48||Lycium barbarum||Chirchita||Solanaceae||Polysaccharide 50, 51||Fruit|
|49||Limonia acidissima||Wood apple||Rutaceae||Polysaccharide 11, 12||Fruit|
|Bitter melon||Cucurbitaceae||Charantin, Momordicin, Galactosebinding
Lectin, Non-bitter, Diosgenin, Cholesterol,
Cucurbitacin glycoside 52, 53, 11, 12
|51||Mentha piperita||Peppermint||Lamiaceae||Essential oil, Terpen, Flavonoid.
Chromium, Copper, Iron,
Nickel 54, 12
|52||Mangifera indica||Mango tree||Anacardiaceae||Mangiferin, Phenolics,
Flavonoid 55, 11, 12
|Leaf, Stem Bark, Fruit|
|53||Musa paradisiaca||Banana||Musaceae||Dietary fibre, Pectin 11, 12||Fruit|
|54||Musa sapientum||Sweet banana||Musaceae||Flavonoid, Steroid, Glycoside 56||Flower|
|Ranunculaceae||Thymoquinone 57, 12||Whole Plant|
|56||Opuntia dillenii||Prickly pear||Cactaceae||Polysaccharide 12||Fruit|
|57||Ocimum sanctum||Holy basil||Lamiaceae||Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4- 26] Allylbenzene 58, 12||Leaf|
|Solanaceae||Polysaccharide 11, 12|
|59||Persea americana||Avocado||Lauraceae||Fat, Protein,
Vitamin, Mineral 11, 12
|60||Psidium guajava||Guava||Myrtaceae||Terpen, Flavonoid, Strictinin,
emblica; P. Acidus
|Euphorbiaceae||Tannin 11, 12||Fruit|
|62||Piper betle||Pan||Piperaceae 60||Leaf|
|63||Piper longum||Piperaceae 11, 60, 12||Root|
|64||Punica granatum||Pomegranate||Punicaceae||Tannin 12||Fruit|
|65||Panax ginseng||Ginseng||Araliaceae||Saponin 12||Fruit|
|66||Rhus coriaria||Sicilian Sumac||Anacardiaceae||Limonene, Nonanal, Dec-2 (Z)-enal 11, 12||Fruit|
|Portia tree||Malvaceae||Populnetin, Herbacetin, Populneol,
|Combretaceae||Shikimic, Gallic, Triacontanoic,
Palmitic acid, β-sitosterol,
Daucosterol 61, 12
|Indian almond||Combretaceae||Petroleum ether,
Aqueous 11, 12, 61
|70||Turnera diffusa||Damiana||Turneraceae||Flavonoid, Terpen 12||Leaf|
|71||Tamarindus indica||Tatul tree||Fabaceae||Flavonoid, Polysaccharide 10, 11, 12||Seed, Fruit|
|72||Triticum vulgare||Wheat||Poaceae||Albumin 11,12||Whole 26 Plant|
|Wild blueberry||Ericaceae||Phenolic 10, 11, 12||Fruit|
|74||Viburnum opulus||Cranberry bush||Caprifoliaceae||Tannin 11, 12||Fruit|
|Bilberry||Ericaceae||Anthocyanoside 10, 11, 12||Leaf, Fruit|
|Winter cherry||Solanaceae||Withanolide, Alkaloid 62, 10, 11||Leaf|
|Solanaceae||Milk-coagulating enzyme, Esterase,
Fatty oil, Essential oil, Alkaloid 62, 10, 11
|Nyala tree||Fabaceae||Fagomine, 4-O-beta-Dglucopyranosylfagomine,
Castanospermine 7, 9, 10
|79||Zingiber officinale||Ginger||Zingiberaceae||Gingerol, Ethanol 63, 12||Bulb|
|80||Ziziphus spinachristi||Christ thorn||Rhamnaceae||Christinin-A, Fatty acid 64, 65||Leaf|
DISCUSSION: Diabetes mellitus is spreading in an alarming way throughout the world and three fourth of the world populations and considered as a major cause of high economic loss which can in turn impede the development of nations. Moreover, uncontrolled diabetes leads to many chronic complications such as blindness, heart disease, and renal failure, etc. Diabetes is increasing day – by – day, presently, insulin is the only drug before ailing patients. However, some crude drug of herbal origin are in use the market. The promising crude drug must be analysed in clinically manifested hyperglycaemia in the wake of thorough investigation of ethnomedicinal antidiabetic herbs.
The study revealed that 80 plant species belonging to 49 families were generally used for treatment of diabetes. The majority of the experiments confirmed the benefits of medicinal plants with hypoglycemic effects in the management of diabetes mellitus. Among the plants used for the diabetes, Annona squamosa, Momordica charantia, Egyptian Morus alba, Lycium barbarum, Allium sativum, and Aegle marmelose seems to be most common plants used to treat diabetes and are available everywhere. The most commonly involved active constituents are flavonoid, tannin, phenolics, and alkaloid. Numerous mechanisms of actions have been proposed for these plant extracts. Some hypotheses relate to their effects on the activity of pancreatic β-cells (synthesis, release) or the increase of the insulin sensitivity or the insulin-like activity of the plant extracts. All of these actions may be responsible for the reduction or abolition of diabetic complications.
CONCLUSION: Long before the use of insulin became common, indigenous remedies were used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. There has been an increasing demand from patients for the use of natural products with antidiabetic activity.
This is largely because insulin cannot be used orally and insulin injections are associated with the risk of hypoglycaemia and impairment of hepatic and other body functions. The undesirable side effects and contraindications of synthetic drugs and the fact that they are not suitable for the use during pregnancy, have made scientists look towards hypoglycaemic agents of plant origin.
The present review has presented comprehensive details of antidiabetic plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some of these plant derived medicines, however, offer potential for cost effective management of diabetes through dietary interventions, nutrient supplementation, and combination therapies with synthetic drugs in the short term, and as the sole medication from natural sources over the long term. The presences of bioactive chemicals are mainly responsible for this antidiabetic action.
However, many other active agents obtained from plants have not been well characterized. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of medicinal plants with antidiabetic effect.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors thankful with our deepest core of heart to Mr. Dilip Kumar Chanchal for his valuable guidance.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Dongray A, Nigam S, Chanchal DK, Chaudhary S and Khan S: A review on some medicinal plant having antidiabetic potential. Int J Life Sci & Rev 2018; 4(10): 155-62. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJLSR.4(10).155-62.
All © 2015 are reserved by International Journal of Life Sciences and Review. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
A. Dongray *, S. Nigam, D. K. Chanchal, S. Chaudhary and S. Khan
College of Pharmacy, SRGI, Ambabai, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
12 August, 2018
25 September, 2018
30 September, 2018
01 October, 2018