AN UPDATE ON AYURVEDIC HERB VISHNUKANTA (CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN.): A REVIEWHTML Full Text
AN UPDATE ON AYURVEDIC HERB VISHNUKANTA (CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN.): A REVIEW
Shashi Alok, Nitika Gupta *, Anurag Kumar and Anu Malik
Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi U.P, India
ABSTRACT: Clitoria ternatea commonly known as Butterfly pea is a medicinal plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. The plant is reported to be used in lithiasis, insect bites, skin diseases, asthma, burning sensation, ascites, inflammation, leucoderma, leprosy, hemicrania, amentia and pulmonary tuberculosis. It is commonly called “Shankpushpi” in the Sanskrit language where it is reported to be a good “Medhya” (brain tonic). The major phytoconstituents found in Clitoria ternatea are the pentacyclic triterpenoids such as taraxerol and taraxerone, ternatins, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, resins and starch. Various secondary metabolites including triterpenoids, flavonols, anthocyanins and steroids have been isolated from Clitoria ternatea Linn.
Keywords: Pharmacognosy, Microscopy, Macroscopy, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology.
INTRODUCTION: Herbal medicines are in great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary healthcare because of their wide biological and medicinal activities, higher safety margins and lesser costs 1. Medicinal plants are part and parcel of human society to combat diseases, from the dawn of civilization 1. There exists a plethora of knowledge, information and benefits of herbal drugs in our ancient literature of Ayurvedic (Traditional Indian Medicine), Siddha, Unani and Chinese medicine 2.
Clitoria ternatea L. (Family: Fabaceae) is a perennial twing herb, stems are terete, more or less pubescent. The roots have a sharp bitter taste and are useful in severe bronchitis, asthma, inflammation and fever 3. The fatty acid content of Clitoria ternatea seeds includes palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids 4. The seeds also contain beta-sitosterol 5. Clitoria ternatea possesses nootropic, anxiolytic, antidepressant, and anticonvulsant 6, sedative 7 antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.
It enhances memory 8, and increases acetylcholine content in rats 9. Thus Clitoria ternatea merits further phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical investigations for development of an effective natural remedy from Ayurvedic rasayana to provide therapeutically effective lead compounds or extracts.
Albiflora, Bracteata and Mearnsii
FIG. 1: CLITORIA TERNATEA
Vernacular names: 10
Sanskrit : Girikarnika, Vishnukranta
Assamese : Aparajita
Bengali : Aparajita
English : Clitoria
Gujrati : Gokarni
Hindi : Aparajita
Kannad : Girikarnika Balli,
Malayalam : Shankhapushapam
Marathi : Gokarna, Aparajita
Oriya : Aparajita
Punjabi : Koyal
Tamil : Kakkanam
Telugu : Dintena
Scientific Classification: 11
Kingdom : Plantae
Subkingdom : Viridaeplanta
Infrakingdom : Streptophyta
Division : Tracheophyta
Subdivision : Spermatophytina
Infrodivision : Angiospermae
Class : Magnoliopsida
Superorder : Rosanae
Order : Fabales
Family : Fabaceae
Genus : Clitoria L.
Species : Clitoria Ternatea
Clitoria ternatea has twining fine stems, 0.5-3 m long. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 elliptic to lanceolate leaflets, 3-5 cm long and shortly pubescent underneath. Flowers are solitary, deep blue to blue mauve; very short pedicellate and 4-5 cm long. Pods are flat, linear, beaked, 6-12 cm long, 0.7-1.2 mm wide and slightly pubescent with upto 10 seeds. The seeds are olive, brown or black in colour, often mottled, 4.5-7 mm long and 3-4 mm wide12. The root system of Clitoria ternatea consists of a fairly stout taproot with few branches and many slender lateral roots. Multicellular trichomes, with two basal cellssmaller than the terminal cells are present. In Transverse section leaf shows a dorsiventral structure.
All along the veins prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate are present. The vein–islet number is 7.5 and palisade ratio is 6.0. The pods are (5-10 cm) long, flat and 6-11 seeded13,14. Cortex is composed of 10-12 layers of thin-walled almost polygonal or tangenially elongated cells, packed with mostly compound starch grains 15,16 .All the ray cells are fully packed with starch grains and few contain calcium oxalate crystals 17,18,19.
Clitoria ternatea is a deep-rooted, tall slender, climbing legume with five leaflets and a deep blue flower. It is well adapted to a variety of soil types (pH 5.5- 8.9) including calcareous soils. It is surviving in both the extended rainfall regions and prolonged periods of drought. Propagation is done through seed. It exhibits excellent regrowth after cutting or grazing within short period and produce high yields also20. Clitoria ternatea L. is well adapted to heavy cracking clay soils in northern Australia21. It is also used as a cover crop and green manure. The seeds are normally sown from the beginning until the middle of the wet season. It persists best when grazed lightly during the wet season 22.
It is found commonly as an escape in hedges and thickets throughout India to an altitude of 15cm and in Andaman Islands. It can be grown as a forage legume either alone or with perennial fodder grasses in Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya-Pradesh, Andhra-Pradesh and Karnataka 23.
Plant parts used:
Leaves, Seeds, Bark, Fruits, Sprouts, Stem
TABLE 1: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
|Part Used||Chemical Constituents|
|Leaves||3 monoglucoside, 3- rutinoside, neohisperidoside, aparajitin, beta-sitosterol, and essential oil, kaempferol- 3- o-rhamnosyl, 3- o- rhamnosyl Glycoside 24.|
|Root||ß- carotene, stigmast- 4- ene- 3, 6, dienetaraxerol & teraxerone, starch, tannins & resins, flavonoids 25.|
|Flower||delphinidin-3, 5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3ß- glucoside, and malvidin- 3ß – glucoside, kaemphferol, p-coumaric acid 26.|
|Seeds||greenish-yellow fixed oil 27, palmitic, stearic,oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids 28.|
Medicinal uses in Asian Indian medicine:
- According to Chhattisgarh state, it is used as a diuretic, crushed fresh root bark is taken with a cup of warm milk 20 days for 2 weeks.
- The root is used in the treatment of various diseases, like indigestion, constipation, fever, arthritis and eye ailments.
- Root is also employed in cases of ascetics, enlargement of the abdominal viscera, sore throat and skin diseases 29.
- They are also demulcent and given in chronic bronchitis.
- Though they are purgative, they cause griping and tenderness, and hence are not recommended 30.
- Root are administered with honey and ghee as a general tonic to children for improving mental faculties, muscular strength and complexion tonics and in epilepsy and insanity 31.
- The root-juice of the white-flowered variety is blown up the nostrils as a remedy for hemicrania.
- The decoction or powder of root is given in rheumatism, and ear-diseases
- In Assam, juice of leaves is mixed with salt and applied around ears in headache and swelling of adjacent gland to relieve pain.
- Juice is used as an anti-dote against snake–bite 32.
- Leaves are used as poultices for swollen joints.
- In the traditional system of medicine particularly in Ayurveda, the roots, seeds and leaves of clitoria ternatea have long been widely used as a brain tonic and is believed to promote memory and intelligence 33.
- According to Irulas of the Kodiakkarai clitoria ternatea paste of flowers is applied to cure infections of eye and for headache
- Flowers is used as antidote for snake-bites 34
- Among the two varieties, the white-flowered one is found to be therapeutically more active, and hence preferred.
- The blue-flowered variety is generally used as a substitute for the white-flowered one. The roots have an acrid and bitter taste and are credited with purgative, laxative and diuretic properties.
- Seeds are considered for colic, dropsy and enlargement of abdominal viscera.
- They are also used in swollen joints 35.
- 50 gm crushed seeds is taken with a cup of water once a day for 3 days. According to Rajshahi district in Bangladesh seeds are boiled in water and the water strained through cloth. 1/32 kg of the strained water is to be taken for 7 days in urinary problems 36.
- Clitoria ternatea seed powder mixed with pepper was given in constipation. This was information given by villagers from Dharapuram Taluk, Tamil-nadu 37.
- Clitorea ternatea is a highly palatable forage legume generally preferred by livestock over other legumes.
- It exhibits excellent regrowth after cutting or grazing within short period and produce high yields.
- It can be grown with all tall grasses for rotational grazing, hay or silage.
- Butterfly pea is also used as a cover crop and green manure.
- Due to its attractive flower colours it is also grown as an ornamental plant 38. The young shoots, leaves, flowers and tender pods are eaten as vegetable in Kerala (India) and in the Philippines.
- In Malaysia, the leaves are employed to impart a green color to food and the flowers to impart a bright blue color to rice cakes.
- The climber yields a useful green fodder throughout the year, particularly during dry period and also dry feed 39.
- It is grown either alone or with other perennial grasses in Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka in India. Besides suppressing many perennial weeds, it enriches the soil by fixing Nitrogen.
- It is also used as drought-resistant pasture in arid and semi-arid regions 40.
TABLE 2: PRELIMINARY PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF C.TERNATEA LINN.
|S.No.||Activity||Plant Part/ Extract||Dose/ Model||Result|
|Memory enhancementActivity||Root/Alcohol||Electroshock model induces amnesia.||This improved dendritic arborisation of amygdaloidal neurons correlates with the increase passive avoidance learning and memory in the Clitoria ternatea treated rats 41|
|Anti-epilepticactivity||Aerial Part/Methanol||100 mg/kg p.o. /pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and maximum electroshock (MES) –induced seizures in mice.||CT significantly delayed theon set of convulsions and also delayed the duration of tonic hind limb extension in MES-induced convulsions 42|
|Anti-inflammatoryactivity||Root/Methanol||150 mg/kg b.w. p.o/In mice with the acetic acid-induced writhing response and mechanical stimulus by tail clip method.||The study was obtaining the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract from the roots of Clitoria ternatea Linn 43|
|Anti-oxidative activity||Flower/ Aqueous Extract||Determining the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants.||The antioxidant potential of aqueous leaf extracts of Clitoria ternatea were evaluated 44|
|Immunomodulatory activity||Petals/Ethanol||alloxan-induceddiabetic rats.||These results further indicate thatthese plant extracts have immunomodulatory effects that strengthen the immune system 45|
|Blood platelet aggregation inhibition||Flowers/Ethanol||Platelet aggregation inhibitory activity in rabbits||The results of various reported studies showed significant inhibition of collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) induced aggregation of platelets 46,47|
|Larvicidal activity||Seed/ Ethanol||The larvae of all the three species with LC50 values 65.2, 154.5 and 54.4 ppm, respectively for A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C.quinquefascitus.||The most promising mosquito larvicidal activity 48, 49|
|Anti-diabetic activity||Leaves/ Ethanol||400 mg/kg body weight||Significantly reduced serum glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine and the activity of gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, but increased serum insulin, HDL cholesterol, protein, liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content and the activity of glycolytic enzyme glucokinase 50, 51|
|Hepatoprotective activity||Leaves/Ethanol||400 mg/kg/CCl4 induced liver damage in rats||It can be concluded that possible prophylactic and therapeutic hepatoprotective effect of Clitoria ternatea leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids which contribute to its antioxidant property 52|
|Local anaesthetic activity||Aerial/ Ethanol||Corneal anesthesia in rabbits and Plexusanesthesia||Actively take part as Local anaesthetics 53|
|Anxiolytic activity||Aerial/ Ethanol||460 mg/kg||The animals treated with CT (100mg/kg) showed a significant increase in the inflexion ratio and discrimination index which provides evidence for the species nootropic activity 54|
|Antihelmintic activity||Leaves/ Ethyl Acetate and Methanol||Concentration of 50 mg/ml./Indian earthworms Pheretimaposthuma||Methanol extract of root is most potent and required very less time to paralysis and death of worms as compared to other extracts. The potency increases from leaves 55|
|Diuretic activity||Dried Root/ Ethanol||single I.V. dose||Actively take part as diuretics 56|
|Anti-microbial activity||Leaves,Root/Ethanol||Inhibition (22±0.5 mm) against E. coli at 0.75 mg.Concentrationand minimum with M. flavus of (14±1 mm) and the callus extractshowed maximum zones of inhibition (16±2mm) against S. typhi while the
lowest with E. coli and S. aureus (12±1 mm and 12±0.9mm)
|Antibacterial activity was shown against Salmonella spp. and Shigella dysenteriae; organisms causing enteric fever 57|
TABLE 3: PHYTOCHEMICAL STRUCTURE PRESENT IN C.TERNATEA LINN.
TABLE 4: QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE VARIOUS PHYTO-CONSTITUENTS ON THE ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CLITORIA TERNATEA L. OF ROOT62:
|Test for saponin||+ +|
|Test for flavonoids||+ +|
| + ++ +
|Test for saponins||+ +|
|Test for terpenoids||+ +|
|Test for tannins||+ +|
|Ferric chloride test for Phenol||+ +|
|Test for proteins||- -|
TABLE 5: PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF C.TERNATEA L. OF ROOT:
|Foreign matter||Not more than 2 per cent|
|Total Ash||Not more than 5 per cent|
|Acid-insoluble ash||Not more than 2 per cent|
|Alcohol-soluble extractive||Not less than 5 per cent|
|Water-soluble extractive||Not less than 8 per cent|
Microscopic characters of C.Ternatea L. Root:
- Shows layers of rectangular, thin-walled, tangentially elongated exfoliating cork cells.
- Secondary cortex consists of rows of large, polygonal, thin walled cells filled with starch.
- Grains, a few cells contain prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in this region.
- Single or groups of lignified cortical fibres, distributed in the lower half of the cortex.
- Secondary phloem consists of usual elements.
- Phloem fibres in groups, a few solitary fibres also present, very long, thin-walled with narrow lumen and pointed tips.
- Xylem fibres similar to those of phloem fibres, a few showing slit-like pits.
- Medullary 10rays 1-5 cells wide, oblong and pitted.
- Xylem parenchyma irregular in shape and pitted walls.
- Starch grains simple as well as compound having components, single grains measuring 3-13 μ in dia.
- Found in secondary cortex, phloem and xylem parenchyma.
FIG. 2: TRANSVERSE SECTION OF C.TERNATEA L. ROOT
CONCLUSION: The widespread survey of literature exposed that C. Ternatea L. is highly regarded as a universal solution in the herbal medicine with diverse pharmacological activity range. This versatile medicinal plant is the unique resource of various types of chemical compounds, which are responsible of the various activities of the plant. Hence extensive investigation is needed to develop their therapeutic utility to combat diseases. As the global scenario is now altering towards the use of non-toxic plant products having traditional medicinal use, development of modern drugs from C. Ternatea L. should be emphasized for the organize of various diseases. Further evaluation needs to be carried out on C. Ternatea L. in order to discover the concealed areas and their practical clinical applications, which can be used for the benefit of the mankind.
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How to cite this article:
Alok S, Gupta N, Kumar A and Malik A:An Update on Ayurvedic Herb Vishnukanta (Clitoria Ternatea Linn.): A Review.Int J Life Sci Rev.2015; 1(1) 1-9: .doi:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJLSR.1(1).1-9.
All © 2015 are reserved by International Journal of Life Sciences and Review. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
Nitika Gupta *, Shashi Alok, Anurag Kumar and Anu Malik
Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi U.P, India.
08 February, 2014
08 May, 2014
04 December, 2014
01 January, 2015