PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA (LYTHRACEAE) EXTRACTS: A REVIEWHTML Full Text
PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA (LYTHRACEAE) EXTRACTS: A REVIEW
Pritesh Ranjan Dash*1, Samanta Sifat Lamia 2, Farzana Khan 2, Sabrina Hossain Sarah 2 and Sheikh Sadia Islam 2
Department of Pharmacy 1, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Department of Pharmacy 2, BRAC University, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
ABSTRACT: Lagerstroemia speciosa commonly known as Jarul is one of those precious medicinal herbs of Lythraceaeas that are still included in un-utilized herbs inspite of the variety of useful pharmacological properties it possesses. Extracts of Lagerstroemia speciosa have anti-diabetic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, xanthine-oxidase inhibitors, antibacterial, antiviral, cytotoxic, anti-fibrotic, antinociceptive, antidiarrhoeal and other activities. Here, we have reviewed all the reported phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the plant and its phytoconstituents.
Keywords: Lagerstroemia speciosa, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activities, Other activities
INTRODUCTION: Medicinal plants have been used in virtually all cultures as a source of medicine and they are also considered as rich resources of ingredients which can be used in drug development and synthesis 1. These plants are frequently used in traditional medicine to treat different diseases in different areas of the world 2. It is observed by UNESCO in 1996 that the use of traditional medicine and medicinal plants in most developing countries, as a basis for the maintenance of a good health 3. Lagerstroemia speciosa (Jarul) is a kind of medicinal plant. The Lagerstroemia genus belongs to the Lythraceae family, Myrtales order containing more than 50 species 4.
It is originally endemic to south-east Asia, Indian subcontinent and Northern parts of Australia 5. Banaba is widely distributed in Philippines, India and Malaysia. The fruits are subglobose capsule type and they are 2 - 3.2 cm long 6. Banaba extracts possess potent anti-obesity effect, without any adverse effect. The extracts are also known to have antioxidant effects and anti-gout 7. Corosolic acid, an active ingredient in these extracts displays a potential anti-diabetic activity 8 - 12 as well as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and hypertensive properties 13.
It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. It is a small to medium-sized tree growing to 20 m tall, with smooth, flaky bark. The leaves are deciduous, oval to elliptic, 8 - 15 cm long and 3 - 7 cm broad, with an acute apex. The flowers are produced in erect panicles 20 - 40 cm long, each flower with six white to purple petals 2 - 3.5 cm long. Banaba also has a long history of folkloric medical applications that include blood pressure control, urinary dysfunctions (helps ease urination), controls the cholesterol levels, treatment of diarrhea, facilitates bowel movement, Diabetes and as analgesic 14. The following is a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the distribution, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of Lagerstroemia speciosa with an urge of further advancements in the medicinal uses of the herb worldwide.
FIG. 1: COMMON NAMES OF LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA
Binomial Name: Lagerstroemia speciosa L. Pers.
Synonyms: Adambea glabra Lam., Lagerstroemia augusta Wall, Lagerstroemia macrocarpa Wall, Lagerstroemia flos-reginae Retz., Lagerstroemia major Retz., Lagerstroemia minor Retz., Lagerstroemia munchausia Willd, Lagerstroemia plicifolia Stokes, Lagerstroemia reginae Roxb., Munchausia speciosa L., Adambea hirsute Lam., Lagerstroemia hirsute (Lam.) Willd.
Botanical Description: Lagerstroemia speciosa is a small to medium-sized tree growing to 20 m tall, with smooth, flaky bark. The leaves are deciduous, oval to elliptic, 8 - 15 cm long and 3 - 7 cm broad, with an acute apex. The flowers are lilac in color. They are produced in erect panicles 20 - 40 cm long, each flower with six white to purple petals 2 - 3.5 cm long. These flowers are used as traditional medicine by practitioners for many purposes and are found almost in every place in the world.
FIG. 2: LEAVES AND FLOWER OF LAGERSTROMIA SPECIOSA
FIG. 3: FRUIT OF LAGERSTROMIA SPECIOSA
Species: L. speciosa
Phytochemical Constituents: Various impressive works have just been done so far to distinguish and disengage the concoction constituents from various concentrates of Lagerstroemia speciosa. Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves and fruits include ellagitannins and related compounds. Leaf extract contains alanine, isoleucine alpha-aminobutyric acid and methoeonine. By using bioassay-directed separation process, seven ellagitannins, lagerstroemin, flosin B, stachyurin, casuarinin, casuariin, epipunicacortein A, and 2, 3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-α/β-d-glucose, alongside one ellagic acid sulfate, 3-O-methyl-ellagic acid 4′-sulfate, ellagic acid, and four methyl ellagic acid derivatives, 3-O-methylellagic acid, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid, 3,4,3′-tri-O-methylellagic acid, and 3, 4, 8, 9, 10-pentahydroxydibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one were discovered.
According to, one- and two-dimensional NMR and high-resolution mass spectroscopy, the chemical structures of all these constituents were designed. Apart from all these, there are some other known compounds, counting ascorosolic acid, gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-O-methylprotocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and isoquercitrin, were also reported from the plant. Ellagitannins demonstrated strong activities in both reviving insulin-like glucose uptake and hindering adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. For the moment, ellagic acid derivatives pointed up an inhibitory effect on glucose transport assay. This examination was the first to report an inhibitory impact for methyl ellagic acid subordinates 15. All parts of the plant, especially old leaves and ripe fruits, contain hypoglycaemic standards having action identical to 6 - 7.7 units of insulin 16. Moreover, from leaves of L. speciosa, another triterpenoid was isolated along with four known mixes of virgatic acid, corosolicacid, ursolic acid and β-sitosterol glucoside 17. Pentacyclic triterpenes that areoleanolic acid, arjunolic acid, asiatic acid, maslinic acid, corosolic acid and 2, 3-hydroxyursolic acid were reported from L. speciosa leaves 18.
TABLE 1: STRUCTURES OF SOME PHYTOCONSTITUENTS ISOLATED FROM LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA 15, 17, 18
- Anti-Diabetic Activity: One of the major activities of Lagerstroemia speciosa, scientists found is the anti-diabetic properties. Diabetes and kidney diseases are often related and the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae), have been generally devoured in a different level of treatment of these two diseases. In the 1990s, the prevalence of herbal medicinal therapy started to draw the consideration of researchers around the world. From that point forward, specialists have directed various in vitro and in vivo experiments that reliably affirmed the antidiabetic movement of Banaba. Researchers have distinguished distinctive parts of banaba to be in charge of its property.
In a study, researchers took tumor cells as a cell model where the impact of plants was observed and to do this, methanol extract was collected from the Banaba plant. After that, the corosolic acid was taken from the methanol extract of banaba and appeared to be a dynamic compound against tumor cells. All the more as of late, some other compounds are detected by focusing on water soluble fractional parts of the exuded liquor.
Ellagitannin Lagerstroemin was found to be actively impactful for the activity. In a different approach, where selected cell model was 3T3-L1 adipocytes, an insulin-like glucose transport inducing activity was found. Scientists made banaba water extract responsible for the effect. In addition, in this research, glucose uptake assay was used as a functional screening method. Again, when HPLC technique was merged with glucose uptake assay, another compound was discovered showing the similar activity not as corrosive acid; named gallotannin. Among all the gallotannin, Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG) was the most significant one. Furthermore, in a compare-contrast overview, PGG results were judged against previously published data.
In this juxtapose analysis; it is found that PGG shows essentially higher glucose transport stimulatory action than Lagerstroemin. Moreover; adipogenesis, the process of fat tissue formation gets disturbed due to the anti-adipogenic action of PGG; in turn, this phenomenon tremendously results in stimulation of glucose uptake in fat cells known as adipocytes 19. The combination activity of glucose uptake and anti-adipogenesis can improve existed treatment method and in future, can contribute to effective drug prescription through its great deals of potential therapeutic activities. It is a rare finding and is not seen in any current insulin mimetic drug 20, 21.
- Hypoglycemic Activity: The plant Lagerstromia speciosa has demonstrated hypoglycemic activity in different assessments around the globe. Hot water extract showed better impact. In a study, the artificially diabetic condition was created in sample rats by using streptozotocin and was treated with a hot extract of the plant’s leaf. Study result showed the tremendous effect of the hot extract on blood sugar level. It suppressed the diabetic condition by decreasing blood sugar level up to 43.20%. In diabetic condition, glucose- 6- phosphate dehydrogenase gets decreased which in return causes the decline of NADPH amount and subsequently makes cells susceptible to oxidant damage and thus kidney damage possibility also gets increased 6, 9, 10. Here, Hot water extract elevates the activeness of shunt enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (33.81%) and glutathione level (31.25%) and as well as decreases the activity of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phasphatase (31.63%) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (27.40%).
Therefore, this study ascribed that hot water extract of L. speciosa leaves have a hypoglycemic effect. Being a hot topic of present concern, diabetes and hypoglycemia were always on experimentation. Hence, conducting tests on Banaba’s antidiabetic or hypoglycemic activity are huge and frequent. All of these have confirmed these properties of Banaba 22-29.
- Free Radical Scavenging: Lagerstroemia speciosa L. plant extricate have antioxidant property. It can be useful in forestalling or abating the progress of different oxidative anxiety related ailments 30. In an in vitro study, a manifestation of free radical scavenging activity of Banaba leaf was seen. This experimentation was conducted with some prominent constituents of Banaba leaf extract such as ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and water. Their superoxide, hydroxyl ion scavenging and lipid peroxidation tests were examined. Among all these, ethyl acetate and ethanol extort showed up drastic antioxidant property than the rest of the two 31.
- Anti-Inflammatory Properties: In case of healing the inflammatory Conditions, Lagerstroemia speciosa plays an important role. In an investigation, it is found that it reduces one of the signs of inflammation. To further illustrate, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were collected from the plant which is also known as Banaba in Phillippines. In paw edema models, inflammation was induced. To create acute and chronic inflammation, carrageenan and formalin were used respectively. In this dose-dependent mannered models, ethyl acetate and ethanol liquor notably decreased paw edema 31.
- Anti-Obesity Effect: In 1999, a study was conducted by Kakuda's research group to find out the anti-obesity activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa. This experiment was run on some female obese KK-Ay/TaJcl mice. They were fed with 5% banaba water contained food and control group mice were kept in their regular diet. Here, none of them showed a change in their food intake habit. As a final point, the result showed 10% body weight reduction in the treated group. This plant extract also brought significant changes in lipid profile of every treated mouse’s liver. Liver triglyceride level was reduced to 40% in the treated group. The amount of parametrial adipose tissue was reduced to 10% (P< 0.01) 20.
- Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors: Enzyme always plays a pivotal role in any biological aspect. Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is nothing different in terms of bountiful significant contribution in hyperuricemia, catalyzing the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. The plant Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Lythraceae), is acknowledged as folk medicine in the Philippines. In a research attempt, bioassay-guided fractionation technique was run where the main objective was to discover the XOD inhibitors from the leaf of this plant. To do this, two active compounds were collected from plant’s aqueous extract. These compounds are valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) and ellagic acid (EA) among what in a non-competition enzyme substrate (xanthine) binding, VAD showed more well-built effect than a clinical drug called allopurinol. As a result, these outcomes may clarify and bolster the idea of dietary utilization of the aqueous extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves to treat hyperuricemia 7.
- Antibacterial Activity: To justify the buzz that L. speciosa has potential antibacterial activity, the extracts from the leaf were collected and were vigilantly investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli where ampicillin was used as a standard. Zone of inhibition, the parameter to understand growth or bactericidal condition was studied. This study revealed that water extract is more efficient than ethanol extract. The inhibitory viability of methanol concentrate of L. speciosa leaves was tried against 12 oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans utilizing the agar well diffusion technique 32. The outcome of the test showed noteworthy effects in opposition to cariogenic isolates. In addition, the measurements of the obtained zone of inhibitions are ranging from 0.0 - 0.9 cm, 0.8 - 2.1 cm and 1.0 - 2.6 cm for extract concentrations of 10, 25 and 50 mg/ml respectively. In another article, it is also found that the flower of L. speciosa plant even holds antibacterial characteristics 33. In that prospect, firstly, they collected methanol extract from the flower. Then they experimented against S. mutans and S. aureus again using agar well diffusion assay 33. Here, At 100 μl per well and 20 mg/ml concentration, the liquor repressed the microbes with zones of inhibition going from 1.8 - 2.5 cm and 2.3 - 2.8 cm, individually.
- Antiviral Activity: To study the antiviral activity of L. speciosa, anti-human rhinovirus (HRV) activity was investigated in HeLa cells. To do this, orobol 7-O-D-glucoside (O7G) was isolated from L. speciosa leaves. It showed broad-spectrum anti-HRV activity towards HRV of groups A and B 34. As the outcome of the test, the level of inhibitory concentration (IC50) of O7G came out 0.58 - 8.80μg/ml and the cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was more than 100 μg/ml. The compound has awe-inspiring possibilities to be produced into as a weapon against human rhinovirus.
- Cytotoxic Activity: To evaluate the cytotoxic activity, a study was conducted where pure brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was used as a sample. The lethality bioassay and the ethanol fruit extract of L. speciosa gave the evidence of prominent cytotoxic activity 35. Lethal concentration for LC50 and LC90 were 60 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml respectively.
- Anti-fibrotic Activity: In a scientific research, the anti-fibrotic impact of L. speciosa was studied. To conduct the research, the livers of male albino Wistar rats were put in fibrosis condition. Interestingly, here fibrosis was induced by using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) 36. Initiation period of this fibrosis was twice week by week; every time through repeated overture of CCl4 at a dose of 1 ml/kg body weight, blended with an equivalent volume of corn oil. The degree of liver fibrosis was evaluated by the amount of hydroxyl proline in the liver, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, antacid phosphatase and bilirubin in the serum, and by histological changes investigations. Administering the extorted liquor of the plant; orally at a concentration of 100 mg/kg body weight, the exceeded abnormal level of the hydroxyl proline content in the liver, serum enzyme levels and total bilirubin was deduced. Significant improvisation in the unhinged livers was observed. This affirms its intense antagonistic characteristic to fibrotic impact.
- Antinociceptive Activity: In various studies, Lagerstroemia speciosa showed antinociceptive or pain relieving effect 36. In a study; two doses of crude chloroform which were extricated from Lagerstroemia speciosa plant leaves were ingested in acetic acid-induced pain in mice model. This chloroform bark extract reduced the number of writhing in mice when it was given at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight keeping the control to compare. When the dose was increased to 500 mg/kg body weight, the frequency of writhing was reduced to 50.7%. This second level of dose showed the equivalent result to the hindrance seen in a standard antinociceptive medication, aspirin 37.
- Anti-diarrheal Activity: In a study, the anti-diarrheal activity of Banaba was tested. To conduct the study, the diarrheal condition was created using castor oil in young Swiss-albino mice sample. Treating with ethanol extract from the plant fruit extract, consequences were observed carefully. It resulted in 2 hours of delay in treated group at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. Besides, it also reduced the frequency of defecation. Moreover, effect after 50 mg/kg body weight dose was compared to standard drug loperamide 34, 19.
- Others Activity: Different substances in little amount were cited as phytol, (Z)- 9-octa-decenamide (oleamide), squalene, n-hexadecanoic Acid, linolenic corrosive, octacosane, tetra-triacontane, and 𝛼-tocopherol, a large portion of which are helpful in people; For illustrations, oleamide is a defensive operator against scopolamine induced memory misfortune and is recommended as valuable as a chemopreventive specialist against Alzheimer's ailment and it actuates profound rest and the upregulation of hunger. Squalene is a triterpene essential forever. In the human body, it is a characteristic and fundamental part utilized for the production of cholesterol, steroid hormones, and Vitamin D. It might likewise be an anticancer substance, as it has chemopreventive action. Phytol is diterpene liquor that can be utilized as an antecedent for making of manufactured types of Vitamin E and Vitamin K1. Its Hexadecanoic acid or palmitic acid and linolenic acid are sorts of unsaturated fats. Octacosane is an alkane and has been utilized as an ointment. Even it has been used as transformer oil, and anticorrosion operator; parts of the paraffin 38.
CONCLUSION: Lagerstroemia speciosa is one of the most near reaching types of the plant right now which has vast uses in traditional medication. In this regard, pharmacognostical and pharma-cological concern on the plant is on significant advances. It additionally requires further developed investigations to assess synthetic, pharmaceutical and pharmacological explores to build up the medication more institutionalized. This review study reveals the pharmacological properties reported join antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antinoci-ceptive, anti-diarrhoeal, cytotoxic, xanthine oxidase deterrent, antagonistic to fat and against fibrotic works out.
This literature review has also brought a major point into light that clinical studies in human are still not available that may provide evidence of efficacy of the plant in human. Besides, further study on other parts of Lagerstroemia speciosa plant should also be done to unveil its unrevealed latent essential properties that may contribute to drug development.
CONTRIBUTION: All authors contributed equally.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Nil
- Singh R: Medicinal Plants a review, Journal of Plant Sciences, 2015; 3(1.1): 50-55.
- Palombo M, Thareja D and Majee C: Lagerstroiemia species: A Review, International Journal of Pharmacy 2005; 6(1): 95-98.
- UNESCO: Culture and Health, Orientation Texts- World Decade for Cultural Development, 1988-1997; Document CLT/DEC/PRO, Paris, France: 1996; 129,196.
- Cabrera RI, Reinert JA and Mc Kenny CB: Differential Resistance Among Crape Myrtale Lagerstroemia species, Hybrids and Cultivates to Foliar Feeding by Adult Flea Beetles (Alticalitigata), Hort. Sci. 2008; 43: 403-407.
- Knox GW and Norcini JG: Lagerstroemia Cultivators under Evaluation at the NFREC- Monticello, Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 1991; 104: 346-347
- Liu F, Kim J, Li Y, Liu X, Li J and Chen X: An extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa has insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells, J Nutr. 2001; 131(9): 2242-7.
- Unno T, Sugimoto A and Kakuda T: Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers., J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 93(2-3): 391-5.
- Murakami C, Myoga K, Kasai R, Ohtani K, Kurokawa T, Ishibashi S, Dayrit F, Padolina WG and Yamasaki K: Screening of Plant Constituents for Effect on Glucose Transport Activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Chem. Pharm. Bull 1993; 29: 585-587.
- Kakuda T, Sakane I, Takihara T, Ozaki Y, Takeuchi H and Kuroyanagi M: Hypoglycemic effect of ex-extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves in genetically diabetic KK-AY mice, BiosciBiotechnol Biochem 1996; 60: 204-8.
- Judy WV, Hari SP, Stogsdill WW, Judy JS, Naguib YM and Passwater R: Antidiabetic Activity of a standardized extract (Glucosol) from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves in type II diabetics, A dose-dependence study, J Ethnopharmacol, 2003: 87(1): 115-7.
- Miura T, Itoh Y, Kaneko T, Ueda N, Ishida T, Fukushima M, Matsuyama F and Seino Y: Corosolic acid Induces GLUT4 Translocation in genetically type 2 diabetic mice, Biol. Pharm. Bull 2004; 27: 1103-1105.
- Miura T, Veda N, Yamada K, Fukushima M, Ishida T, Kaneko T, Matsuyama F and Seino Y: Antidiabetic Effects of Corosolic acid in kk – Ay diabetic mice, Biol. Pharm. Bull 2006; 29: 585-587.
- Yamagunchi Y, Yamada K, Yashikawa N, Nakamura K, Haginaka J and Kunimoto M: Corosolic Acid Prevents Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Hypertension in SHR/N Dmcr- cp rats, a model of metabolic syndrome, Life Sci. 2006; 79(26): 2474-2479.
- Takayama H, Kitazima M, Ishizuka T and SeoS: US Patent Application Publication
- Bai N, He K, Roller M, Zheng B, Chen X, Shao Z, Peng T, and Zheng Q: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2008; 56: 11668-11674.
- Ghani A: Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 1998; 1, 7, 178, 305, 373.
- Okada Y, Omae A and Okuyama T: A New Triterpenoid Isolated from Lagerstronemia speciosa (L.) PERS., Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2003; 51: 452-454.
- Hou W and LY: Triterpene acids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves as α-glucosidase inhibitors, Phytotherapy Research 2009; 23: 614-618.
- Chan EW, Tan LN and Wong SK: Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Lagerstroemia speciosa: A Natural Remedy for Diabetes, International Journal of Herbal Medicine 2014; 2: 100-105.
- Suzuki Y, Unno T, Ushitani M, Hayashi K and Kakuda T: Antiobesity activity of extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves on female KK-Ay mice, J NutrSci Vitaminol 1999; 45: 6791-5.
- Klein G, Kim J, Himmeldirk K, Cao Y and Chen X: Antidiabetes and Anti-obesity Activity of Lagerstroemia speciose 2007; 4: 401-407.
- Yizhen X, Brent WO, and Stanton RC: Diabetes causes inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase via activation of PKA, which contributes to oxidative stress in rat kidney cortex, AJP: Renal Physiology 2005; 289(5): 1040-1047.
- Garcia F: On the hypoglycemic effect of decoction of Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves (banaba) administered orally,J Phil Med Assocv 1940; 20: 395-402.
- Garcia F: Distribution and deterioration of insulin-like principle in Lagerstroemia speciosa (banaba: Acta Med Philippina) 1944; 3: 99-104.
- Garcia F and Melencio-Maglalang P: Application of banabins (a plantisul preparation) and S. B. menus to diabetics, J Phil Med Assoc. 1957; 33(1): 7-15.
- Hayashi T, Maruyama H, Kasai R, Hattori K, Takasuga S and Hazeki O: Ellagitannins from Lagerstroemia speciosa as activators of glucose transport in fat cells, Planta Me 2002; 68(2): 173-5.
- Hattori K, Sukenobu N, Sasaki T, Takasuga S, Hayashi T and Kasai R: Activation of insulin receptors by lagerstroemin, J Pharmacol Sci. 2003; 93(1): 69-73.
- Hosoyama H, Sugimoto A, Suzuki Y, Sakane I and Kakuda T: Isolation and quantitative analysis of the alpha-amylase inhibitor in Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (Banaba), Yakugaku Zasshi 2003: 123(7): 599-605.
- Tanquilut NC, Tanquilut MRC, Estacio MAC, Torres EB, Rosario JC and Reyes BAS: Hypoglycemic effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. on alloxan-induced diabetic mice, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2009: 3(12): 1066-1071.
- Pareek A, Suthar M, Rathore G, Bansal V and Kumawat T: In vitro Antioxidant Studies of Lagerstroemia speciosa Leaves, Pharmacognosy Journal 2010; 2(10): 357-360.
- Priya TT, SabuMC and Jolly CI: Free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory properties of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L), Inflammopharmacology 2008; 16(4): 182-187.
- Vivek MN, Sunil SV, Pramod NJ, Prashith KTR, Mukunda S and Mallikarjun N: Anti cariogenic activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal 2012; 1(1): 53-56.
- Pavithra GM, Rakesh KN, Dileep N, Syed Junaid, Ramesh Kumar KA and Prashith TR: Elemental analysis, antimicrobial and radical scavenging activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) flower: Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 2013; 5(6): 215-222.
- Choi HJ, Bae EY, Song JH, Baek SH and Kwon DH: Inhibitory effects of orobol 7-O-D-glucoside from banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa ) on human rhinoviruses replication. Letters in Applied Microbiology 2010; 51: 1-5.
- Rahman MA, Uddin N, Hasanuzzaman M and Rahman AA: Antinociceptive, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers, Pharmacologyonline 2011; 1: 604-612.
- Prabhu VV, Chidambaranathan N, Nalini G, Venkataraman S, Jayaprakash S and Nagarajan M: Evaluation of anti-fibrotic effect of Lagerstroemia speci-osa (L.) Person carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis, Current Pharmaceutical Research 2010; 1(1): 7-12.
- Morshed A, Hossain MH, Shakil S, Nahar K, Rahman S, Ferdausi D, Hossain T, Ahmad I, Chowdhury MH and Rahmatullah M: Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of two Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants, Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. and Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.), Natural and Applied Sciences 2010; 4(2): 193-197.
- Sirikhansaeng P, Tanee T, Sudmoon R and Chaveerach A: Major Phytochemical as γ-Sitosterol Disclosing and Toxicity Testing in Lagerstroemia Species, Evidence Bas-ed Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017; 1: 10.
How to cite this article:
Dash PR, Lamia SS, Khan F, Sarah SH and Islam SS: Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Lagerstroemia speciosa (lythraceae) extracts: A review. Int J Life Sci Rev. 2018; 4(1): 1-09:. doi:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJLSR.4(1).1-09.
All © 2015 are reserved by International Journal of Life Sciences and Review. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
P. R. Dash*, S. S. Lamia, F. Khan, S. H. Sarah and S. S. Islam
Department of Pharmacy, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
04 December, 2017
28 December, 2017
31 December, 2017
01 January, 2018